Vice Admiral Hans Alfred Nyholm

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Vice Admiral Hans Alfred Nyholm

Berichtdoor Roel » 22 Jun 2011, 08:10

Gisteren verkocht op Ebay! Incl. de documenten voor een Grootkruis in de Orde van Oranje Nassau met de zwaarden en een Groot officier in de Huisorde van Oranje. Ik heb meegeboden op de documenten maar iemand met sniper software was me in de laatste seconden te snel af...

Hier enkele foto's en een engelse bio. Dit zodat de informatie niet verloren gaat!
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Re: Vice Admiral Hans Alfred Nyholm

Berichtdoor Roel » 22 Jun 2011, 08:12

Vice Admiral Hans Alfred Nyholm.

Early life and career 1898 - 1945:

Hans Alfred Nyholm, was born in Copenhagen, Denmark, on the 15th August 1898. He applied to the Danish Admiralty for service in the Royal Danish Navy on 17th May 1914 and was sent for apprenticeship aboard the Patrol Vessel "Absalon" from 11th July to 2nd August 1914, and to the Naval Barracks for further apprenticeship from 2nd August to 10th September 1914. During this period he was still a school student at the "Galster of Hoboll". It appears that he applied for entrance to the Cadet School in 1915, but it was not till April 1919 that he passed the exam for entrance to the Naval Cadet School and passed in top of his class being appointed a Second Lieutenant in the Naval Officer Corps from 1st October 1919. He was subsequently promoted to Lieutenant 1st Grade in the Officer Corps from 1st October 1920.

Nyholm appears to have served in a shore based capacity before he entered the Submarine School at Scoff for training from 15th October 1925 to 1st May 1926, and was subsequently appointed Temporary Commanding Officer of the B Class submarine "Triton" from 8th May 1926, being appointed Commanding Officer from 4th October 1926, during this period from 14th to 20th May 1926 he was put in charge of two United States officers on secondment.

Promoted to the rank of Lieutenant Commander from 1st May 1927, he was posted to command of the C Class submarine "Rota" from 3rd June 1927, and to the command of the C Class submarine "Flora" on 2nd May 1928, followed by the A Class submarine "Najaden" on 14th July 1928, and to the C Class submarine "Bellona" from 17th August 1928. On 3rd October 1928 he was appointed to the command of the D Class submarine "Daphne" and would remain with this vessel through to 19th November 1931, during which time he participated in, a mission to the Atlas Works at Bremen, Germany for new U.T. Appliances, and would also attend trials in a new motor at Kiel, from 16th February to 17th December 1930 he was on service with the submarine division, followed by from October to November 1931 he was Superintendent at the Submarine School for Engineers, he was also awarded the Polish Order of Polonia Restituta on 24th September 1930.

He was Temporary Commanding Officer of the B Class submarine "Neptun" from 1st February 1931 before returning to command the "Daphne" from 19th December 1931. Appointed to command the D Class submarine "Dryaden" from 21st January 1933, and again the "Daphne" from 13th October 1934, it was for services with this submarine that he was awarded the Belgium Military Decoration 2nd Class on 30th April 1935. Whilst with this submarine he also served as School Superintendent for the Submarine Sea Officers School.

From 14th October 1935 through to 10th February 1936 he was again School Superintendent for Submarine Sea Officers School and from 5th November 1935 was appointed Deputy Naval Officer for the construction of the E Class submarines. Reappointed to the command of the "Rota" from the 7th February 1936, and to the command of the B Class submarine "Ran" from 31st January 1936, he was reappointed to the command of the "Dryaden" from 1st April 1936 continuously through to 15th August 1937 during which time he was promoted to the rank of Commander on 17th June 1937. Appointed to the commmand of the B Class submarine "Galathea" from 15th August 1937 and then back to the "Daphne" on 1st April 1938, he returned to the "Dryaden" on 30th July 1938. Appointed to the command of the new H Class submarine "Havmanden" on 8th October 1938, he was serving in command of the B Class submarine "Triton" from 10th December 1938 and was appointed to two other commands, the "Havmanden" again from 21st February 1939, the "Bellona" again from 6th May 1939, and when war was declared in Europe in September 1939 was serving aboard the then brand new H Class submarine "Havkalen" with which vessel he would remain until the occupation of Denmark by Germany in April to May 1940. Nyholm's final appointment prior to the disbandment of the Danish Navy by the Germans was as Head of the Submarine Division from 11th May through to 16th September 1940. For his long and distinguished service aboard submarines, Nyholm was appointed a Knight of the Order of Dannebrog on 2nd April 1940.

DENMARK UNDER THE OCCUPATION:

Nazi Gerany's occupation of Denmark began with Operation Weserubung on 9 April 1940, and lasted until German forces withdrew at the end of World War II following their surrender to the Allies on 5 May 1945. Contrary to the situation in other countries under German occupation, most Danish institutions continued to function relatively normally until 1943. Both the Danish government and king remained in the country in an uneasy relationship between a democratic and a totalitarian system until German authorities dissolved the government following a wave of strikes and sabotage.
As the war dragged on, the Danish population became increasingly hostile to the Germans. Soldiers stationed in Denmark had found most of the population cold and distant from the beginning of the occupation, but their willingness to cooperate had made the relationship workable. The government had attempted to discourage sabotage and violent resistance to the occupation, but by the autumn of 1942 the numbers of violent acts of resistance were increasing steadily to the point that Germany declared Denmark "enemy territory" for the first time. After the battles of Stalingrad and El-Alamein the incidents of resistance, violent and symbolic, increased rapidly.

In March 1943 the Germans allowed a general election to be held. The voter turnout was 89.5%, the highest in any Danish parliamentary election, and 94% cast their ballots for one of the democratic parties behind the cooperation policy while 2.2% voted for the anti-cooperation Dansk Samling. 2.1% voted for the Nazi Party, almost corresponding to the 1.8% the party had received in the 1939 elections. The election, discontent, and a growing feeling of optimism that Germany would be defeated led to widespread strikes and civil disturbances in the summer of 1943. The Danish government refused to deal with the situation in a way that would satisfy the Germans, who presented an ultimatum to the government, including the following demands, on 28 August 1943: A ban on people assembling in public, outlawing strikes, the introduction of a curfew, censorship should be conducted with German assistance, special (German military) courts should be introduced, and the death penalty should be introduced in cases of sabotage. In addition, the city of Odense was ordered to pay a fine of 1 million kroner for the death of a German soldier killed in that city and hostages were to be held as security.

The Danish government refused, so on 29 August 1943 the Germans officially dissolved the Danish government and instituted martial law. The Danish cabinet handed in its resignation, although since King Christian never officially accepted it, the government remained functioning de jure until the end of the war, but this is a technicality. In reality—largely due to the initiative of the permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs Nils Svenningsen —all day-to-day business had been handed over to the Permanent Secretaries, each effectively running his own ministry. The Germans ran the rest of the country, and the Danish Parliament didn't convene for the remainder of the occupation. As the ministry of foreign affairs was responsible for all negotiations with the Germans, Nils Svenningsen had a leading position in the government.

Anticipating a German attack on the Copenhagen Docks, the Danish Navy had instructed its captains to resist any German attempts to assume control over their vessels. The navy managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships, while Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels. The Germans later succeeded in raising and refitting 15 of the sunken ships. During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, and 13 vessels succeeded in this attempt, four of which were larger ships. By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile. In 1943, Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train themselves as "police troops". By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognized the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile. Danish collaboration continued on an administrative level, with the Danish bureaucracy functioning under German command.

After the fall of the government, Denmark was exposed to the full extent of Nazi terror. In October the Germans decided to remove all Jews from Denmark, but thanks to an information leak from German diplomat Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz and swift action by Danish civilians, the vast majority of the Danish Jews were transported to safety in neutral Sweden by means of fishing boats and motorboats. The entire evacuation lasted two months and one man helped ferry more than 1,400 Jews to safety. Sabotage, unencumbered by government opposition, grew greatly in frequency and severity, though it was rarely of very serious concern to the Germans. Nonetheless, the Danish resistance movement had some successes, such as on D-Day when the train network in Denmark was disrupted for days, delaying the arrival of German reinforcements in Normandy. An underground government was established, and the illegal press flourished. Allied governments, who had been skeptical about Denmark's commitment to fight Germany, began recognizing it as a full ally.

The permanent secretary of the ministry of foreign affairs Nils Svenningsen in January 1944 suggested establishment of a Danish camp in order to avoid deportations to Germany. Werner Best accepted this suggestion, but on condition that this camp was built close to the German border. Froslev Prison Camp was set up in August 1944. The building of the camp was for the sole purpose of keeping Danish Jews and other prisoners within Denmark's borders.
Gestapo had limited trust in the Danish police which had a total 10,000 members. 1,960 of these were arrested and deported to Germany on 19 September 1944.

In September 1943, a variety of resistance groups grouped together in the Danish Freedom Council, which coordinated resistance activities.

A high-profile resister was former government minister John Christmas Moller who fled to England in 1942 and became a widely popular commentator because of his broadcasts to the nation over the BBC.
Danish Resistance Movement & Military Intelligence Operations:

On 23 April 1940, members of Danish military intelligence established contacts with their British counterparts through the British diplomatic mission in Stockholm, and the first intelligence dispatch was sent by messenger to the Stockholm mission in the autumn of 1940. This evolved into regular dispatches of military and political intelligence, and by 1942-43, the number of dispatches had increased to at least one per week. In addition, an employee of Danmarks Radio was able to transmit short messages to Britain through the national broadcasting network. The actual intelligence was gathered mostly by officers in the Danish army and navy, and contained information about political developments, the location and size of German military units and details about the Danish section of the Atlantic Wall fortifications. In 1942, the Germans demanded the removal of the Danish military

Another success was the disruption of the Danish railway network in the days after D-Day, delaying the arrival of German troops based in Denmark to France.

By the end of the war the organized resistance movement in Denmark had scored many successes, and slightly more than 850 members of the resistance had been killed, either in action, in prison, in concentration camps, or (in the case of 102 resistance members) executed following a court-martial.

The Danish Navy during the Occupation:

In the period between the two world wars, the Danish navy (as well as the rest of the Danish military forces) had low priority for the politicians, especially between 1929 and 1942 under Thorvald Stauning. During the first year of the German Occupation (1940–1945), the navy, assisted the occupying German forces with minesweeping, because of the political demand of keeping the infrastructure (ferry-lines) up and running. The tensions between the German soldiers and the Danish armed forces rose slowly and on 29 August 1943, they managed to scuttle 32 of its larger ships, while Germany succeeded in seizing 14 of the larger and 50 of the smaller vessels. This was due to a secret order, given directly to the captains by word of mouth by commander of the navy, Vice Admiral A.H. Vedel "to try to flee to the nearest neutral or nazi-opposed port. If that was not possible the ship should be scuttled at as deep a location as possible". The Germans later succeeded in raising and refitting 15 of the sunken ships. During the scuttling of the Danish fleet, a number of vessels were ordered to attempt an escape to Swedish waters, 13 succeeding. The score for the larger vessels was therefore: 32 vessels were sunk, 2 were in Greenland, 4 reached Sweden, 14 were captured by the Germans. As for the smaller vessels: 9 "patruljekuttere" reached Sweden, 50 others were captured by the Germans. By the autumn of 1944, these ships officially formed a Danish naval flotilla in exile. In September 1943, A. H. Vedel was fired by order of the prime minister Vilhelm Buhl, because of his hostile actions towards the Germans. In November 1943, the Swedish authorities allowed 500 Danish soldiers in Sweden to train as "police troops". By the autumn of 1944, Sweden raised this number to 4,800 and recognised the entire unit as a Danish military brigade in exile.

Nyholm's services during the German Occupation:

The best written evidence of Nyholm's service during the German occupation can be gleaned from the original recommendation for the award of the Honourary Member of the Order of the British Empire awarded to Nyholm for his services with Danish Naval Intelligence during the occupation. As Nyholm was specifically working in Denmark covertly in support of the Allies and particularly Great Britain - the British recommendation sums it all up:
'At the outbreak of war, Orlogskapajn Nyholm was personal assistant to the Admiral commanding the Danish Navy. After a short time he was transferred to the Naval Intelligence department to collect intelligence concerning German Fleet movements in Danish waters and to obtain details of the production of German U-Boats in Danish shipyards.
On 29th August, 1943, when the Germans demobilised the Danish Army and Navy, the Danish Naval Commander in Chief gave instructions for certain units of the Danish Navy in Copenhagen harbour to be scuttled rather than allow them to fall into the hands of the Germans. Orlogkaptajn Nyholm was one of the officers responsible for the successful execution of this order.

Orlogskapitajn Nyholm then set to work to establish Resistance Groups among naval officers and men. These groups were used for the collection of intelligence and for training as guerilla troops in the event of an invasion of Denmark by the Allies.
At the end of 1943, the naval and military intelligence organisations combined and Orlogskapitajn Nyholm was appointed to a senior post on the combined staffs. In response to a request from the British Naval Intelligence Division, the network of the Danish Naval Intelligence was considerably increased and detailed reports of all German shipping movements were sent to England three times a day.

In December 1944, several of his colleagues were arrested and some were shot. Orlogskapitajn Nyholm himself was arrested with compromising papers on him but he managed to swallow these. He was subjected to such brutal torture that it is unlikely he will ever recover from the effects but he steadfastly refused to betray his comrades. He was finally sent to Neuen Gamme where once more he was very badly manhandled but again refused to divulge any compromising information. He remained in Neuen Gamme until the capitulation.

Orlogskapitajn Nyholm's outstanding services in procuring high-grade naval intelligence was of the greatest value to the Allied cause. At all times he displayed the greatest bravery and self-sacrifice and his conduct has been a source of great inspiration to his comrades.'

The United States of America in awarding him the Medal of Freedom with Bronze Palm state this: 'Captain Hans A. Nyholm, Danish Navy, for exceptionally meritorious achievement which aided the United States in the prosecution of the war against the enemy in Continental Europe until 5th May 1945. Captain Nyholm accomplished the duties assigned to him with outstanding and distinguished success, thereby materially aiding the United States in the war against the enemy and in the eventual liberation of Denmark. His fortitude, diligence, perseverance, and energy in dangerous and difficult circumstances reflect the highest credit upon him and the Allied Armed Forces.'

For his distinguished war services, Commander Hans Nyholm was promoted to the rank of Commander Captain on 23rd May 1945, and awarded the Danish Medal of Good Service in the Navy on 23rd January 1946; the Officer of the Legion D'Honneur by France on 27th November 1946; the Medal of Freedom with Bronze Palm by the United States of America on 20th December 1946; and the Honorary Member of the Order of the British Empire, M.B.E., by Great Britain on 30th May 1947. In addition he was awarded the title of Dannebrog Man on 22nd January 1948. The United States award is one of only 16 given to Danish recipients.

Post Occupation services and achievements:

Captain H.A. Nyholm, Knight of Dannebrog and Dannebrog Man continued in the service of the reformed Royal Danish Navy post 1945. He was appointed to the command of the Royal Yacht "Dannebrog" on 14th January 1948, twice serving in this role, the second time being in the Summer of 1949. No doubt as a result of Royal visits he was awarded the Royal Order of the Sword Swedish, 2nd Class, by Sweden on 16th June 1948, and the Commander of the Order of Saint Olav by Norway on 25th August 1948, though both of these awards may also have been belatedly in recognition of his war services. He had also been promoted to Naval Commodore on 18th February 1948.

Promoted to the rank of Rear Admiral on 15th June 1950, he was appointed to the Command of the Danish Navy Coastal Fleet on 22nd September 1950, and was subsequently put in command of the Royal Danish Navy on 19th December 1951. He had been awarded the Commander 2nd Class Grade of the Order of the Dannebrog on 29th January 1951.
Nyholm would remain Head of the Danish Navy & Chief of Naval Staff through to his retirement in 1961. Promoted to Vice Admiral on 1st June 1958, during his service as Head of the Danish Navy he would be grated the following Honours and Awards: from Denmark: Commander 1st Grade of the Order of the Dannebrog, on 29th January 1956; Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog on 29th January 1961; Norway: Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Olav, on 11th September 1958; Sweden: Commander Grand Cross of the Order of the Swedish Sword, in 12th December 1961; United States of America: Commander of the Legion of Merit, on 18th December 1959; Brazil: Grand Commander of the Order of Naval Merit, on 26th April 1956; and from the Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau on 24th October 1958, and the Grand Officer of the House Order of Orange, in June 1953.

Vice Admiral H.A. Nyholm, Grand Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog and Dannebrog Man retired on 21st February 1961 and died, aged 66 in 1964
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Re: Vice Admiral Hans Alfred Nyholm

Berichtdoor ErikMuller » 22 Jun 2011, 16:43

Mooie set. Jammer dat je niet gewonnen hebt Roel!


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